market. Universities are expected to become more directly involved in market-driven processes and more exposed to competition from other producers of knowledge ( Lundvall 2003).
Local knowledge is combined with global knowledge and the resulting combinations are transformed into new products and processes. An unpublished paper by Christopher Freeman from 1982 that he worked out for the oecd expert group on Science. Foreword, in the last decade new concepts as innovation and innovation system has becoming more and more used by policy makers around the world.
Industrial and Corporate Change.-Å. The focus has remained on easy to measure indicators such as R D and patents. But nevertheless as the economic rationale for public policy has become more predominating there has been a tendency to move in the direction of the generalist models. I druid Summer Conference 2004 on Industrial Dynamics. Table 1 Four different perspectives in economic analysis Allocation Innovation Choice making Standard neoclassical Management of innovation Learning Austrian economics Innovation systems The table also indicates that learning as well as innovation. We know that it is not only the R D process which is important. Regions and countries (oecd 1999. Perhaps the single most fundamental characteristic of the innovation system approach is that it is interactionist. Empirical research indicates that there is a major hidden productivity andy bernard kommer du att minnas mig reserve that might be realized to the mutual benefit of owners.